The Online Industrial Ethernet Book is a Directory and Information Source for Industrial Ethernet and Embedded Internet. It features + products, hundreds of. Media Information. Industrial Ethernet Book is the only internationally. Practical security guidelines for building OPC UA applications. Practical.
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Contacts. Industrial Ethernet Book is published by: IEB Media GbR. Bahnhofstr. Resources. If you run a neutral industrial website, are a trade association or. 10 Issues To Consider Before Installing Industrial Ethernet If you're installing.
In contrast, using a trusted certification authority CA can build a chain of trust from the remote party all the way to a trusted root i.
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CA-signed certificates in a PKI: A certification authority CA is an entity that issues digital certificates . It must be a trusted party, which is trusted by the owner of certificates and by the users that should accept the certificate. A CA can revoke the trust of a certificate or of another CA that is at a lower level by providing a certificate revocation list.
A CA must meet high-security requirements and the private key used to create the public key contained within the certificate must be kept in a safe place.
By using multiple issuing CAs, it is possible to revoke the trust of one issuing CA without harming the other issuing CAs. A CA can distribute issued certificates by the following distribution channels:. Manual Distribution Mechanism: The certificates are transported on a storage medium or secure email communication. The certificates are installed manually.
This requires a large amount of manual labor, especially for large deployments. Custom Distribution Mechanism: The requesting application uses a well-known public repository, where it uses its credentials to authenticate, download and install the certificate from.
A custom solution usually has the disadvantage that it can be more easily compromised by a hacker. Automatic Certificate Management: The certificates are distributed via a Global Discovery Server. Furthermore, it provides X.
A GDS provides the master database including roles, like security admin observer.
Practical security guidelines for building OPC UA applications
The role management integrates with existing user and role management systems. Users provide credentials to authenticate and to get a granted role and the corresponding access rights for a UA session. The identity information and access rights are handled via a claims-based authorization mechanism, which, e.
The GDS provides a certificate manager to request and update certificates and trust and revocation lists. The certificate manager supports pull and push-based distribution models. Either the application acts as a client and uses methods of the certificate manager to pull certificates and lists. Or the application acts as a server, and provides methods that the certificate manager can use to push new certificates and lists.
Managing certificates by using the certificate manager scales better than handling certificates manually. The security concept "defense in depth" realizes the information assurance by using multiple layers. As a result, an attacker must break through several barriers before compromising the whole system.
Practical security guidelines for building OPC UA applications
Within each layer, several requirements can be fulfilled by using the corresponding OPC UA feature to improve the overall security. This ensures that, among other things, authentication at the application level is forced. Selection of cryptographic algorithms: Note that a good client connection strategy is to start with the most secure profile, check that this is supported by the server and then try the next best thing until a common profile is found.
Weaker security policies use outdated algorithms and should not be used. For example, SHA-1 is no longer secure and should not be used. User authentication: It is not possible to trace who has changed, for example, the data or configuration on the server side when this generic identifier is used. Certificate and private key storage: Never store private keys or the corresponding certificate files.
Use the dedicated certificate stores of your operating system and use operating system capabilities for setting the access rights. Using certificates: Especially, self-signed certificates should not be trusted automatically, which means without an additional verification. If the certificates are not self-signed, a Certificate Authority CA , e.
The certificates of the Certificate Authority are either self-signed or signed by another Certificate Authority. Certificate Authorities can be multilayered. Managing and maintaining certificates: Use certificate trust lists and certificate revocation lists to manage valid certificates.
Only trusted users or processes should be allowed to write these lists. The lists should be updated regularly. Security is a must have in connected systems. An overview of industrial security is given by the VDMA guideline.
You need an overall security concept, which is based on accepted security standards. Furthermore, personnel must be trained regularly and you must be prepared for security incidents. The IEC series of security standards defines industrial communication networks requirements for the network and system security.
You should also be aware of your threats and risks. Furthermore, CVSS defines a security threats evaluation model. Additionally, Common Criteria defines a common methodology for information security evaluation.
The gives you a good starting point for becoming a security expert.
Being up to date and networking with security professionals is also key for the latest news. Axel Sikora, Hochschule Offenburg. As industrial systems use networking and digitalization, new security challenges that are created need to be tackled systematically.
CC-Link IE The CC-Link IE family of gigabit Industrial Ethernet networks has been developed to provide users with high performance, high reliability communication and control for maximising output and minimising downtime.
Combined, both networks promote transparency from sensors to enterprise software. Fieldbusworld Fieldbusworld is a comprehensive information source for fieldbus and related industrial networking technologies.
IAONA Europe IAONA Europe is an alliance of leading manufacturers and users of automation systems, which pursues the aim of establishing Ethernet as the standard application in every industrial environment at an international level. High-speed communications and data synchronization are provided to increase system speed and provide advanced functionality. Modbus-IDA Modbus-IDA is a group of independent users and suppliers of automation devices that seeks to drive the adoption of the Modbus communication protocol suite and the evolution to address architectures for distributed automation systems.
The Modbus-IDA website provides useful information about Modbus and Modbus TCP protocols, including links to the protocol specifications, implementation guides, and an active discussion forum for users and developers.
Optical Ethernet Resource Center This site will bring you up to date with all ongoing activities and happenings in the expanding optical Ethernet market. Optical Network Optical Network is a site dedicated to optical network research resources.
IGS , have set themselves the task, to provide all companies interested with this digital interface for communication between numerical controls and drives under the name of SERCOS interface, established as International Standard IEC and European Standard EN and supervise their compliance with the association mark.Custom Distribution Mechanism: The requesting application uses a well-known public repository, where it uses its credentials to authenticate, download and install the certificate from.
A CA can distribute issued certificates by the following distribution channels:.
The steady increase in attacks on critical infrastructure and industrial automation solutions, the economic and social threats, and the lack of understanding in security principles make it necessary to build a community to share requirements, use cases, and best practices. This allows domain experts to maintain their own firewalls and reduces the possibility of a common security gap in the DMZ. Within each layer, several requirements can be fulfilled by using the corresponding OPC UA feature to improve the overall security.