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Nov 21, Download Howards End free in PDF & EPUB format. Download E.M. Forster's Howards End for your site, tablet, IPAD, PC or mobile. Howards End by E. M. Forster; 73 editions; First published in ; Subjects: Fiction, Inheritance and succession, Sisters, Country homes, Social classes. Howards End (frequently mis-titled as Howard's End) is a novel by E. M. Forster, first published in , about social conventions, codes of conduct, and.
In , the Modern Library ranked Howards End 38th on its list of the best English-language novels of the 20th century.
Where Angels Fear to Tread is a novel by E. Forster, originally entitled Monteriano. The Longest Journey is a bildungsroman by E. Rickie Elliot is a student at early 20th century Cambridge, a university that seems like parad The classic book, The Romance of Lust: A Classic Victorian, by Anonymous.
The classic book, Through the Postern Gate: WIN the ultimate Audiobook experience! Enter here no download necessary. As Forster puts it in the wake of Ruth Wilcox's disposition of Howards End to Margaret, "The desire for a more inward light had found expression" Or, as he wrote more forcefully in an earlier draft, "The protest of a lifetime had reached them at last" qtd.
Wilcox's state of mind in the nursing home pro- vides a rich context for understanding the dying woman's surprising last request, no critic has speculated on the matter despite Forster's clear description of an atmosphere of recriminations and despite Mrs. Wilcox's married lifetime of spiritual deprivation and emotional denial.
Although Judith Weissman has noted, "Henry's intentions are. Anne Wright also notes the irony of Mrs.
Wilcox being removed to die in a nursing home but does not integrate this observation into her analysis of the text No critic has sub- sequently picked up on Weissman's observation regarding Henry's intentions in denying his wife's dying wishes or Wright's comment on the irony of the situation, although the manner of Mrs. Wilcox's death is central to our understanding of the text.
One reason, perhaps, why the context of Ruth Wilcox's death has not become part of the critical conversation surrounding Howards End is the extent to which Forster makes demands on his readers, includ- ing keeping secrets from them perhaps mirrored in the secret of her illness that Mrs. Wilcox kept from her family and using misdirection and indirection in his writing.
Wilcox's pencil-written bequest is stitched into but without connecting threads showing the. It is productive to in- vestigate why Forster chooses silence to obscure Ruth Wilcox's death34 and instructive to attend to Forster's decision to have his characters remark so negatively on Margaret's presence at the nursing home.
Why should Forster choose colored mums, symbolizing life, and perhaps even reincarnation, for a funeral? Why should he contribute the detail that the woodcutter takes one of the chrysanthemums, thereby ensuring its afterlife? And why would Forster ind an analogy to the funerals of Alcestis or Ophelia appropriate in describing Mrs. Wilcox's burial? These are small, seemingly unnecessary, somewhat unsettling details that a reader might easily pass over. Forster also misdirects.
When Dolly, Charles's wife, irst announces, "Oh no, the matron of the nursing home has written" 82 , Forster immediately follows this with Henry's angry dismissal of Dolly for disobeying him.
When Charles refers once more to the note "Forwarded through the matron of that nursing-home" 83 , he immediately follows it up with a question on another subject but is interrupted by Dolly, who then becomes the object of Charles's anger; next Henry Wilcox pronounces the bequest not legally binding, and we then return to Charles's question; by now the reader has completely lost track of the fundamentally important information that Mrs.
Wilcox died in "that nursing home" By attending to these details and to Forster's silences, indirec- tions, and misdirections with regard to Ruth Wilcox's death essentially connecting the prose with the passion , the novel gains in complex- ity, and Ruth Wilcox gains greater centrality in the text. Declining to narrate her dying, Forster sprinkles his novel with brief, seemingly unimportant references to her death in the nursing home, making it less obvious to the reader that there is a connection with the Wil- coxes' mishandling of and failure to appreciate Howards End, Henry Wilcox's various treacheries, and the Wilcox family's general disregard for the inner light of their mother and wife.
Forster asks the reader to understand that the Wilcoxes are mistaking their own treason to their mother as treason on her part. One can go further and suggest that, for Forster, at a symbolic and moral level, Mrs. Wilcox's death illuminates the modern, insensitive treason of a nouveau-riche culture that values nursing home deaths over death at home and that runs roughshod over the dying wishes of a faithful, ethereal, and much- wronged wife and mother. Moran Cruz In a culminating moment in the text, Margaret Schlegel, now Margaret Wilcox, accuses Henry of bad faith when he refuses to al- low her to stay for one night with her sister Helen at Howards End.
Margaret's refusal to accept Henry's decision focuses on the illogic of Henry's railing at Helen's sexual misadventure, while he himself had sexually betrayed his irst wife.
The issue at hand, however, is not only Henry's sexual betrayal of Ruth Wilcox but also his refusal to allow his irst wife to die in her own home. Henry justiies refusing to allow Helen and Margaret to overnight at Howards End with two false premises. The irst is that Howards End is his house and is somehow sacred when the reader knows that he never treated the house as sacrosanct and that his wife bequeathed the house to Margaret.
The second justiication is that he has the memory of his irst wife to consider, but this is hypocritical given his disrespect for Ruth in her dying and in her living. Thus, in addition to the reasons that Margaret provides when she calls Henry "muddled, criminally muddled" , the reader can add one more—Henry Wilcox's criminally muddled decision to place his wife in a nursing home to die rather than in her beloved Howards End.
Notes 1. For Barbara Rosecrance's extended critical discussion of Forster's narrative voice, see — Wright is uneasy with the conclusion of Howards End and critical of what she sees as clashing modes of writing.
See 60— Rosecrance remarks that "Critics. Alan Wilde has com- mented that the ending is "at best, unsteady, at worst facile" As originally suggested by Lionel Trilling, this question is a synecdo- che for the question who shall inherit England see See also Heggelund and Su —57, n2. For a survey of various critical views, including critiques of the por- trayal of Ruth Wilcox, see Rosecrance and See also Maskell, especially note 1.
Howard Doughty proposes that the question with which Forster is preoccupied in his novels, and particularly in Howards End, is whether it is possible to have a really healthy individual life in modern society. But, Doughty notes, Forster's concern with "sociology breaks the surface of realism, fantasy gets in the way of both," concluding that Forster's lack of integration is really a failure in technique and that Howards End and Ruth Wilcox's Unattended Death the solution to his question is very feebly addressed in Howards End.
See As this essay suggests, Howards End is more integrative and less feeble than Doughty would have it. Wilcox leaves behind a handwritten bequest, leaving Howards End to Margaret Schlegel, an action that seems to contradict her previous persona, threatens to undo her previous will, and shocks the family. For example, Catherine Frank's study is particularly interesting as she examines Ruth Wilcox's "desiring will" and search for a spiritual heir in the legal context of writing, proving, and contesting wills and last testaments in England between and See — Lavin notes that "The reader has been repeatedly told that Ruth is in ill health.
Forster is supposed to have read medical research about cancer symptoms that he used to prepare his readers for Ruth's death. Certainly we see in reading the early manuscripts for Howards End that he has carefully edited his work so that the inal version would include.
Journal of Narrative Theory
In Two Cheers for Democracy, Forster made it clear that after The Longest Journey, he "arranged that characters in subsequent novels should die less frequently and give previous notice where possible by means of ill- ness or some other acceptable device" King's Cross had always suggested ininity.
There is, as has been articulated by Lavin in Aspects of the Novelist, a functional similarity "between Forster's use of sudden death and his use of eternal moments. Both epiphanous devices result in changed and charged tempi. They are Forster's break with the continuity of more traditional time-bound narrative writing" For an expanded treatment of the manner in which Forster's novels are informed by individual deaths while refusing to narrate the actual dying, see Stewart, chapter 5.
The hints at a willed death include, in addition to the comparison with Alcestis and Ophelia, the narrator's exclamation: "How easily she slipped out of life! For similar family responses in a different context, see Hendrik Hartog who describes the legal recourse had by family members and friends who were excluded, despite prior understandings or expectations, from a testator's will.
His case studies are mostly from New Jersey in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Melanie Williams examines Ruth Wilcox's codicil and the family's reaction to it in the context of legal theories of distributive justice, using Forster's iction to examine what constitutes just redistribution of property.
She points out that, while married women could own their own property in the wake of the Married Women's Property Act Moran Cruz of , it would have been highly unusual for a married woman to pass her property on to another woman outside familial inheritance conventions. See —80, especially , , and n Forster, through this example and others in Howards End "is fully engaged with the terms of reference of theories of distributive justice at the time" That Ruth Wilcox's legacy is the crux of the novel is generally un- derstood and is underlined by Charles Mauron's title to the French translation of the novel: Le Legs de Mrs.
See, for example, Williams n18, who describes the attempted transfer of property based on both motives. Forster's attention to lowers is also evident with regard to his mother's funeral and gravesite. See The Journals and Diaries of E. Forster 3: 88, Flowers become a recurrent motif in Howards End, a way of stitching together the metaphorical or symbolic and metaphysical presence of Mrs.
Wilcox and linking the lives and deaths of Mrs. Wilcox and Leonard Bast "life was a house, death a wisp of hay, a lower" . Wilcox, for example, when irst introduced is associated with lowers see 4 and Her subsequent reappearance in London is marked also by lowers, the dead chrysanthemums that Mrs.
Munt, the Schlegels' aunt, is pulling out of a vase as she remarks on the Wilcoxes who have moved across the way in London see The colored chrysanthemums, mentioned at Ruth Wilcox's funeral, were normally associated with life and hope, with weddings and happy occasions, while white chrysanthemums were associated with death and funerals.
The symbolism of the chrysanthemums most likely suggests the continuing presence of Mrs. Wilcox and the lack of closure of her burial.
With the woodcutter taking one of the lowers, the lower has an afterlife, although Margaret is sure that they must have frozen overnight. Even more suggestive is the association of chrysanthemums with Theosophy, relevant given that Margaret read in the literature of Theosophy.
See "Theosophy's only a halfway- house—" and "'What a practical little woman it is!
What's it been reading? Theo—Theo—how much? See also where Margaret's belief in endless levels beyond the grave is mentioned "as the theory he had censured teaches. Welsh describes the relation- ship between Theosophy and lowers by focusing on Rudolf Steiner, one of the founding philosophers of Theosophy, who introduced an analysis of plant life where "lowers may be said to recapitulate in microcosm the eternal processes of birth, life, reproduction, decay, material death, and regeneration which Theosophy sees as the ruling principle of the universe.
Steiner, for example, encourages the Theosophic initiate to discover in a dying blossom the expectation of regeneration and in the healthy lower the inevitability of decay. In this respect Steiner's esoteric pedagogies relect the adoption by Theosophy of oriental religious doctrines regarding transmigration of Howards End and Ruth Wilcox's Unattended Death the soul.
While Margaret is unaware of it, this sense of proportion helps explain Ruth Wilcox's pencil-written note, for Mrs. Wilcox had earlier agreed with a prior commentary on proportion by Margaret: "Don't begin with proportion. Only prigs do that. Let proportion come in as a last resource, when the better things have failed, and a deadlock—Gra- cious me, I've started preaching" Much further in the novel Margaret muses during a conversation with Helen that "proportion is the inal secret [but] to espouse it at the outset is to ensure sterility" For more on the role of women, and particularly unmarried women, in taking care of the dying, see Thane — See Howarth 84—97, especially See also Curl, Morley, and, for a literary treatment, Holubetz, who focuses on pious deathbed scenes and solemn funerals in the works of Dickens, Thackeray, Trollope, and Mrs.
There was a "mounting tendency for deaths to occur away from the home" in England over the century or so from Thomson Similar evidence comes from Ontario and Montreal in the nineteenth century: "It is. See Rothman 57—69 for similar evidence for New England. For the larger United States, Tamara K. Hareven notes that, "By the end of the nineteenth century, there were some institutions for middle and upper-class people that were more respectable and inhabitable replicas of the asylums for the aged poor.
There is a dearth of studies on this topic for Edwardian England, and what research there is focuses on the poor and working classes. See Thomson 43—44 who notes that "Statistics of the movement of elderly people through institutions of care have attracted little attention from present-day researchers.
See Baly, particularly chapter See volume 3, for his aunt's death. See Marianne Forster, in this biography of his great-aunt, was clearly out of sympathy with the Victorian custom of memorializing the deathbed process; his unwillingness "to describe illness and death at any length" in the biography informs his iction as well, in- cluding Mrs.
Wilcox's death in Howards End as well as other ictional deaths Mrs. Moran Cruz See —89 for Marianne's brother's marriage to his deceased wife's sister, Marianne's forced exit from the home, and the estrangement of the children from his irst marriage from Battersea Rise. Forster remarks, "I understand many of their feelings: it has so happened that I have been deprived of a house myself" See also The Journals and Diaries, volume 3, —73 and In he referred to Rooksnest as "the home of my childhood and the proposed asylum of my old age" Ironically, the family's claim to Howards End rested, in part, on the extent to which they had allegedly improved it.
In over half of the nurses in England worked in the homes of patients as domiciliary nurses.
As private nurses they earned more, as there was great demand among the more prosperous classes for nurses to come into the home. See Abel-Smith 52— On free charity hospitals where those better off but dying might have been placed, see Baly, chapter She notes, however, that in spite of the existence of these voluntary hospitals, "by the second half of the nineteenth century, most of the sick were.
Charles states, after his mother's death: "I wouldn't touch it [Howards End] with tongs myself. It's a measly little place" David Medalie, in analyzing the echoes in Forster that parallel C.
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Masterman's The Condition of England, refers to Masterman's observation that "the bulk of the older estates have passed into the hands of the owners of the 'new wealth,' the Plutocracy which looks for its consummation in ownership of a portion of the land of England" Masterman Ruth's intentions may have been meant to avert this result in the case of Howards End. See Medalie 14— This, then, raises questions as to whether one can assume that Ruth Wilcox was happy in her marriage as Andrew Wright suggests.
In her analysis of Forster as author, Lavin describes Forster's ideal readers as those who "must bring their intelligence and memory to bear on the Plot in order to truly understand the novel" Forster asks for "the intelligent reader, the reader who will apply memory to the novels" According to Lavin, "Forster's expressed aim was to have his own form be visible only during an after-reading, a relective period, and to have it unobtrusively spring out of his subject" She identifies Howard's End with all that is truly beautiful in England, and that if one's home were the housing for the crucible of one's true self, then Howard's End was that for her.
If it had been lost, so too would she have been. It is a clear statement by Forster that the industrializing features of modernity were empty if it culminated in a loss of personal identity.
What value is England without Howard's End? But more interestingly, what value is the future of England without its heritage? These questions are put forward with great affection throughout the book.
While Henry doesn't understand Margaret's attachment to Howard's End, Margaret herself becomes increasingly in love with England; starting and ending with Howard's End. Yet all the while, it is Miss Avery who can see into Margaret's soul and knows what she really wants and needs, as it is she who unpacks Margaret's belongings. At the end of the book, it is let slip how ironic it is that Margaret should get the house after all, as Mrs Wilcox had in fact given it to her in a note before she died.I took it to my heart and hoped, as Marianne had of Battersea Rise, that I should live and die there" Marianne In this manner, as Garrett Stewart puts it, Forster has managed a "sly mitigation of referents" When Dolly, Charles's wife, irst announces, "Oh no, the matron of the nursing home has written" 82 , Forster immediately follows this with Henry's angry dismissal of Dolly for disobeying him.
For an expanded treatment of the manner in which Forster's novels are informed by individual deaths while refusing to narrate the actual dying, see Stewart, chapter 5. Meanwhile, the sisters are taken aback when the Wilcoxes move into a flat opposite theirs.
Jul New York: Twayne, It bears noting, that Mr Bast dies as a result of being hit by Charles with a German sword.