Key Concepts: Fiscal federalism, vertical and horizontal imbalances, federal grants, Fiscal federalism in Ethiopia, the subject matter of this paper, has been . Chapter One: Federalism and Fiscal Federalism in General Evolution and Development of fiscal federalism in Ethiopia . Additional reading. picscobenreatttas.tk Pfister and family, founders of Green Ethiopia and friends of fiscal federalism, decentralization, local financing and budgeting.
|Language:||English, German, Dutch|
|ePub File Size:||23.59 MB|
|PDF File Size:||16.52 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Fiscal federalism in the Ethiopian ethnic-based federal system /. Article with Request Full-text Paper PDF . A Special Issue of Perspectives on Federalism. PDF | Ethiopia adopted ethnic federalism and restructured the regions along ethnic lines as soon as the EPRDF took Download full-text PDF process regarding financial and managerial matters is transferred to federal institutions at the. Fiscal Federalism in Ethiopia. Yalew Abate (picscobenreatttas.tk). Speaker, House of Federations. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
Ethnic groups were granted the "unconditional right" to secession ,  although it is doubtful whether any group could in fact achieve this. The country was described by a visitor in as "at peace, progressing towards prosperity".
In contrast, Zenawism is accused of promoting separatism and irredentism and may encourage African tribes to aim for their own independent states.
The Original Sin of Ethiopian Federalism
Multiparty democracy was introduced in Nepal in after a popular uprising led by the Congress party and the United Left Front, a coalition of communist parties. Ethnic issues did not emerge prominently in the drafting of the new constitution.
This led to the adoption of the term "ethnic federalism" to describe the structure proposed for Nepal, although some of the principles in fact referred to the wider notion of identity rather than ethnicity. The drawing of borders was complicated by the demographic distribution in many regions; there are over officially recognised ethnic groups in Nepal, and many of them are geographically dispersed and do not form a majority in any territory.
The country was divided into seven federal provinces formed by grouping existing Districts. Among these reforms are wide- ranging measures for revising tax legislation and organizing centralized offices for trade and investment. Reform measures can be seen in the division of powers with regards to the administration of large-scale agricultural investment lands and comprehensive reforms to investment-incentive legislation both directly related to mobilization of investments.
Particularly, these measures were triggered by various factors including the need to promote domestic investment and attract foreign direct investment.
Land Reforms Land administration reforms play a pivotal role in the formation of any DS especially reforms that are directed towards abolishing non-market coercion. Bagchi argues that the extensive pro-peasant reforms of land laws have been the basic features of developmental states since the 16th Century Bagchi, In contrast, the Ethiopian government has not yet adopted a system of private ownership of land.
However, within the existing state ownership of land, extensive reforms have been undertaken by the government.
The primary illustration is the practice of centralizing administration of investment land. The Constitution bestows on States the power to administer land and natural resources while legislative power is reserved for the federal government. Hence, the Ministry of Agriculture is entrusted with the administration of agricultural investment lands. Organizing a central office, whose mandates are controlling and directing the mobilization of investments throughout nation is a necessary prerequisite for building an effective DS.
Currently the Federal Land Administration Agency is in charge of concluding lease agreements as well as setting land use fees.
Yet, the revenue collected by the federal government is transferred to States.
This measure has ultimately limited the relatively unrestrained autonomy of States to set and change tax rates land use fees 5.
As a result, recentralization of the power to administer agricultural investment land has drastically limited tax competition among States. At the same time, relative tax autonomy can also be one way of attracting investments and maximizing revenue. However, if the federal acts are politically motivated then it would amount to discrimination as it ultimately be jeopardizes investment flows and the proportional development of States.
Unfortunately, there are cases in which the federal government has allegedly influenced the investment decisions of investors with its power to control nationwide flows of agricultural investments. Federal Tax Incentives In its move towards DS, the Ethiopian government has taken different measures to reinforce its commitment to attracting foreign investment together with encouraging domestic investors.
A number of investment and investment incentive proclamations and regulations have been introduced in the two decades old Ethiopian federal system. It would not be far from the truth to argue that there exists no other law that has been amended as frequently as investment incentive regulations. As it is appealed by the doctrine of the theory of the DS, the regulation embraced income tax exemptions and exceptions of payments of customs duty.
Unfortunately, one of the consequences of the federal investment incentive laws is the over-extended scope of federal taxation powers. This is due to the applicability of income tax holidays, stipulated by the federal investment incentive law, not being limited to the areas of taxation that are reserved for the federal government. Rather, the regulation extends its scope of application to the areas that are exclusively reserved for States under the federal covenant. By doing so, the federal government has unconstitutionally constrained the principles of fiscal autonomy of regions in the federal system.
At least in the short run, exemptions on dominant tax sources of regional revenue amounts to reductions in their revenue size.
Similar measures were taken and the exact same challenges were posed on subnational governments in other federations, which had once been developmental.
Ethnic and Fiscal Federalism in Nepal
For instance, it was only when the Brazilian Constitution was adopted that the DS-oriented fiscal policy measures of the federal government came in to end in the Brazilian federal system. Big-Sized Government and Revenue Recentralization in Ethiopia Many scholars recommend privatizing state-owned public enterprises as a means to address the existing vertical imbalance since it might help to increase the regional tax base Aalen, Thus, it appears to be the commitment of the federal government that matters since privatization creates a limited opportunity for widening the scope of regional revenue sources and capacities without making constitutional amendments.
These enterprises contribute significantly to the existing financial centralization in the Ethiopian federal arrangement in various ways.
First, since these enterprises are owned by the federal government, the latter has been able to collect the lion share of the total non-tax revenue of the country. At the same time, these enterprises are significant sources of federal taxes since the Constitution assigns both levels of government to levy and collect most of the taxes in their respective enterprises The main objective of this study was to assess the practices and problems of fiscal decentralization in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, the practices of fiscal decentralization show that there is high vertical fiscal imbalance and regional disparities, problem of effectiveness and efficiency in resource utilization, problems of administrative malpractice and tight political influence mainly at local levels, and problems of spillover effect.
Central Control and Regional States’ Autonomy in Ethiopia
The current study suggests that: civil service institutions should be divorced from party politics to allow a build-up of professional, committed and honest civil servants to serve the interest of the general public; assigning appropriate revenue sources for regional units so that subnational units could provide adequate public service to the local people; promoting transparency, and encouraging wider participation of the general public and civil society institutions so that they can play constructive roles.
Keywords: fiscal federalism, fiscal decentralization practices References Befekadu, D. The Legal Framework for Fiscal Decentralization.
Ethiopian Journal of Economics, 3 2 , Boex, J. An introductory overview of intergovernmental fiscal relations. Endawke, T.
Fiscal Federalism Teaching Material.Ethiopias federal restructuring and the adoption of Stalinist principles of. The first state of emergency was declared in October and was lifted in August Ethnic groups of all sizes have demanded some form of recognition and territorial autonomy.
Irrespective of the final partition, there will be a number of ethnic minorities within all federal states. Trends of aggregate regional revenue and expenditure as a percentage of the total national revenue and expenditure.
Fiscal Federalism Teaching Material. Fiscal federalism and decentralization: A review of some efficiency and macroeconomic aspects. Hence, it is possible to say that the Constitution envisaged subnational fiscal autonomy, at least in relative terms.
- EL GRAN MEAULNES PDF DOWNLOAD
- BRAMMER CATALOGUE EBOOK DOWNLOAD
- ISD1420P DATASHEET EBOOK DOWNLOAD
- PRING ON PRICE PATTERNS EPUB DOWNLOAD
- RETELISTICA PDF DOWNLOAD
- RANNA KHADDO PUSHTI EBOOK DOWNLOAD
- IMPROVE YOUR COMMUNICATION SKILLS BY ALAN BARKER DOWNLOAD
- MACKADE BROTHERS NORA ROBERTS DOWNLOAD
- EN 1808 PDF
- DS12C887 EPUB
- GARTH NIX SABRIEL PDF